• One study found that utilizing PBM prior to exercise significantly increases the 1-rep max test for leg extension and leg press exercises when compared to PBM therapy post-exercise (Vanin et al., 2016)
  • Again, when comparing training with PBM to training without, it has been demonstrated that the PBM group had a 29% greater increase in the 1-rep max leg-press. The PBM group also showed an increase in muscle performance in the isokinetic dynamometry test, whereas training alone did not (Ferraresi et al., 2011)
  • And again, PBM increases the amount of maximum repetitions performed by the quadriceps femoris muscles (de Brito Vieira et al., 2014)
  • In conclusion of another study, they stated that PBM applied before resistance training was effective in gaining grip strength when compared to isolated PBM and isolated strength training after for weeks (Barbosa et al., 2017)
  • PBMT applied before and after sessions of aerobic training for 12 weeks can increase the time-to-exhaustion and oxygen uptake and also decrease the body fat in healthy volunteers when compared to placebo irradiation before and after exercise sessions. Our outcomes show that PBMT applied before and after endurance-training exercise sessions lead to improvement of endurance three times faster than exercise only (Miranda et al., 2018)
  • PBM therapy increases endurance and significantly improves biochemical markers such as: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood lactate, and oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In other words, this modality can enhance performance and accelerate recovery (De Marchi et al., 2019)
  • More studies concluded that laser therapy increases time to exhaustion in competitive cyclists (Lanferdini, Bini, et al., 2018; Lanferdini, Krüger, et al., 2018)
  • It has been shown to significantly improve running economy, rate of perceived exertion, velocity at VO2 Max, and total time to exhaustion (Dellagrana et al., 2018)
  • In high-level rugby players, PBM has resulted in improved average time of sprints and fatigue index in a sprint test. It also resulted in a decreased percentage of change in blood lactate levels and perceived fatigue. Conclusion: PBM can enhance performance and accelerate recovery (Pinto et al., 2016)
  • Even in postmenopausal women, PBM improves maximal performance and post-exercise recovery (Fernanda Rossi Paolillo et al., 2013)
  • Muscle torque at the beginning of an exercise and maintained levels of lactate after resistance exercise has been demonstrated from clinical application of PBM (dos Santos Maciel et al., 2014)
  • Conclusion: “Infrared-LED during treadmill training may improve quadriceps power and reduce peripheral fatigue in postmenopausal women” (F. R. Paolillo et al., 2014)
  • Clinical research demonstrated that LED can be used as a tool to increase muscle activity and to prevent fatigue (Kelencz et al., 2010)
  • In an identical twin study, compared with placebo, LED therapy increased the maximal load in exercise and reduced fatigue, creatine kinase, and visual analog scale. Gene expression analyses showed decreases in markers of inflammation (IL-1Beta) and muscle atrophy (myostatin) with LED therapy. Protein synthesis (mammalian target of rapamycin) and oxidative stress defense (SOD2 [mitochondrial superoxide dismutase]) were upregulated with LED therapy, together with increases in thigh muscle hypertrophy. In summary, Ferraresi et al. concluded LED therapy can be useful to reduce muscle damage, pain, and atrophy, as well as to increase muscle mass, recovery, and athletic performance in rehabilitation programs and sports medicine (Ferraresi et al., 2016)
  • PBM applied before eccentric training sessions improves hypertrophic response and muscular strength gain in healthy subjects (Baroni et al., 2015)
  • “Pre-exercise phototherapy with combination of low-level laser and LEDs, mainly with 30 J dose, significantly increases performance, decreases DOMS, and improves biochemical marker related to skeletal muscle damage.” (Antonialli et al., 2014)
  • In a smaller group of subjects, a single LED therapy intervention immediately attenuated muscle soreness and muscle strength loss and range of motion impairments (Borges et al., 2014)
  • Another small group of subjects (postmenopausal women) demonstrated that infrared-LED illumination associated with treadmill training can improve muscle power and delay leg fatigue (Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Milan, et al., 2011)
  • One article from 2016 looked at Return-to-Play in college athletes and found that those who utilized PBM had significantly reduced time to Return-to-Play after a wide range of injuries (Foley et al., 2016)
  • A systematic review from 2015 presents 3 articles that showed that the use of low-level laser therapy, compared to placebo, is effective in treatment of tendinopathy. (Nogueira & Júnior, 2015)
  • “Low-level laser therapy, with the parameters used in this study, accelerates clinical recovery from chronic Achilles tendinopathy when added to an EE regimen. For the LLLT group, the results at 4 weeks were similar to the placebo LLLT group results after 12 weeks.” (Stergioulas et al., 2008)
  • Following an ankle sprain, when compared to the PRICES intervention, PBM was shown to be significantly more effective in reducing edema and pain. (de Moraes Prianti et al., 2018)
  • Combined with standard treatment, fractionated irradiation photobiomodulation therapy has been shown to have favorable short-term effects on the recovery of patients with ankle sprains (Calin et al., 2019)
  • The photons are absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores in skin cells. Consequently, electron transport, adenosine triphosphate nitric oxide release, blood flow, reactive oxygen species increase, and diverse signaling pathways are activated. Stem cells can be activated, allowing increased tissue repair and healing. In dermatology, LLLT has beneficial effects on wrinkles, acne scars, hypertrophic scars, and healing of burns. LLLT can reduce UV damage both as a treatment and as a prophylactic measure. In pigmentary disorders such as vitiligo, LLLT can increase pigmentation by stimulating melanocyte proliferation and reduce depigmentation by inhibiting autoimmunity. Inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and acne can also be managed. The noninvasive nature and almost complete absence of side effects encourage further testing in dermatology.” (Avci et al., 2013)
  • A 2014 controlled trial showed that participants subject to PBM therapy experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and ultrasonographically measured collagen density. The blinded clinical evaluation of photographs confirmed significant improvement in the intervention groups compared with the control (Wunsch & Matuschka, 2014)
  • Another experiment demonstrated that improvements in skin appearance (decrease in wrinkling and roughness) observed in LED-treated individuals can be explained by reversed collagen downregulation and MMP-1 upregulation (Barolet et al., 2009)
  • Even a smaller version of the JOOVV, with red and near-infrared LED therapy delivered from a portable handheld unit represents an effective and acceptable method of photo rejuvenation. 74 participants in this study reported a visible improvement in fine lines and wrinkles at 8 weeks posttreatment (Sadick, 2008)
  • Treatment of the under eye area result in significantly less wrinkling (H.-K. Kim & Choi, 2017)
  • Of participants in a small study, 91% reported improved skin tone and 82% reported enhanced smoothness (Baez & Reilly, 2007)
  • Recently, in 2018 children with post-burn scars had half of their scars treated with a topical medicine, whereas, the other half was treated with topical medicine plus laser therapy. There was significant improvement in the half of the scar that received laser therapy (Alsharnoubi et al., 2018)
  • Fifteen women suffering from moderate acne vulgaris of the face showed how red light therapy can be an effective, well-tolerated, safe, simple and inexpensive treatment option (Zane et al., 2008)
  • LED light therapy in conjunction with tacrolimus improves skin lesions/atopic dermatitis (C.-H. Kim et al., 2013)
  • A couple other studies show improvements in atopic dermatitis, as well (Jekal et al., 2017; C.-H. Kim et al., 2016)
  • PBM has been shown to stimulate healing, relieve pain, and reduce inflammation. Also, it increases ATP levels, cell proliferation and migration, and protein synthesis (Hamblin, 2017)
  • PBM stimulates healing, protects tissue from dying, increases mitochondrial function, and improves blood flow and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to increase antioxidants and decrease inflammation. Furthermore, many studies in small animal models of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) have found positive effects in neurological function, learning and memory, and reduced inflammation and cell death, in the brain. There is evidence that PBM can help the brain to repair itself by stimulating neurogenesis, upregulating BDNF synthesis, and encouraging synaptogenesis. PBM has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow, tissue oxygenation and improve memory, mood and cognitive function. There have been reports of improvements in executive function, working memory, and improved sleep (Hamblin, 2018)
  • After patients underwent total hip replacements, PBM has been shown to have a greater reduction in pain and inflammatory markers than the placebo group (Langella et al., 2018)
  • A double-blind placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that low level laser therapy (another name for PBM) increases endurance for repeated elbow flexion when applied to the biceps muscle prior. It also resulted in decreased postexercise levels of blood lactate, creatine kinase, and C-reactive protein (Leal Junior et al., 2010)
  • PBM has been shown to decrease pain (according to the visual analog scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire) experienced by delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) (Douris et al., 2006)
  • When photons are absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores in skin cells, electron transport, blood flow, and diverse signaling pathways are activated. Stem cells can be activated, allowing increased tissue repair and healing. In dermatology, PBM has beneficial effects on wrinkles, acne scars, hypertrophic scars, and healing of burns. In pigmentary disorders such as vitiligo, PBM can increase pigmentation by stimulating melanocyte proliferation and reduce depigmentation by inhibiting autoimmunity. Inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and acne can also be managed(Avci et al., 2013)
  • PBM can increase peak force produced by skeletal muscle (de Almeida et al., 2012)
  • Athletes, people with injured muscles, and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy may all benefit from PBM (Ferraresi et al., 2012)
  • In patients with knee osteoarthritis, PBM was able to reduce pain and increase function in the knee joint (Al Rashoud et al., 2014)
  • LED light therapy (like the Joovv) promotes a decrease in inflammatory cells, increase in fibroblast proliferation, stimulation of angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation and increased synthesis of collagen. In other words, it promotes tissue repair and wound healing (Chaves et al., 2014)
  • PBM tends to accelerate the resolution of arthritis by signaling specific immune cells (Dos Anjos et al., 2019)
  • Morning red light exposures can modulate leptin and ghrelin concentrations, which could have an impact on reducing hunger that accompanies sleep deprivation (Figueiro et al., 2012)
  • PBM can influence reduction of cellulite (Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Borghi-Silva, et al., 2011)
  • PBM reduces obesity-linked glucose intolerance, adipose tissue inflammation, and hepatic stress (Petersen et al., 2017)
  • “Conclusion: Low-level laser therapy achieved safe and significant girth loss sustained over repeated treatments and cumulative over 4 weeks of eight treatments. The girth loss from the waist gave clinically and statistically significant cosmetic improvement.” (Caruso-Davis et al., 2011)
  • Several articles support the theory that photobiomodulation can reduce overall circumference measurements of specifically treated regions. (Jackson et al., 2009; McRae & Boris, 2013)
  • The results of a 2015 study demonstrated for the first time that phototherapy enhances the physical exercise effects in obese women undergoing weight loss treatment promoting significant changes in inflexibility metabolic profile (Sene-Fiorese et al., 2015)
  • PBM in association with exercise, has been shown to be an effective tool in the control of obesity and it’s comorbidities for obese individuals (da Silveira Campos et al., 2018; Duarte et al., 2015)
  • A 2018 article compared the effects of Botox treatment to low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for migraines. Their data showed that both treatments can be used to treat chronic migraine, reduce headaches, and decrease the intensity of pain. Additionally, the LLLT group experienced less sleep disturbance (Loeb et al., 2018)
  • A pilot study on 11 chronic, mTBI participants concluded shining red/near-infrared LEDs on patients’ scalp increases their ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. The participants also reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (Naeser et al., 2014)
  • A 14-day whole-body irradiation with red-light treatment improved the sleep, serum melatonin level, and endurance performance of elite female basketball players (Zhao et al., 2012)
  • When comparing sleep quality after exposure to bright light of different colors, a lower temperature color (like the JOOVV) was found to have less suppressive effects on drop in core body temperature and melatonin secretion (Morita & Tokura, 1996)
  • A 2015 article provides a rationale for applying PBM therapy to treat mTBI. Their reasoning: increased cerebral ATP production and blood flow, antioxidant effects, increase in heat-shock protein 70, potential increase in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, and improvements in cognition, PTSD, and sleep (Naeser & Hamblin, 2015)
  • PBM has recently been shown to noninvasively revers age-associated cognitive decline in mice (Zhang et al., 2019)
  • One of the first double-blind, placebo-controlled human trials on dementia/AD and red light therapy were published in 2017, with extremely positive findings. The data showed red light therapy treatments produced positive changes in executive function, clock drawing, immediate recall, memory, visual attention, and task switching, as well as “a trend of improved EEG amplitude and connectivity measures.”(Berman et al., 2017)
  • Increased function, better sleep, fewer angry outbursts, less anxiety, and wandering were reported post-PBM. There were no negative side effects. This is the first completed PBM case series to report significant, cognitive improvement in mild to moderately severe dementia and possible AD cases (Saltmarche et al., 2017)
  • In 2015, one month of near infrared light treatment mitigated the deposition of β-amyloid in cerebellar cortex of APP/PS1 mice, and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, the hyperphosphorylation of tau, the damage caused by oxidative stress and the downregulation of cytochrome oxidase expression by Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex of K3 tau transgenic mice. These findings show the ability of near infrared light to mitigate degeneration in many – probably all – regions of the mouse brain (Purushothuman et al., 2015)
  • Another study from 2017 provides evidence that near infrared light can effectively reduce synaptic vulnerability to damaging amyloid-β oligomers, thus furthering near infrared light therapy as a viable treatment for AD (Comerota et al., 2017)
  • The use of PBM significantly reduced the presence of amyloid-β plaques and improved spatial memory and behavioral and motor skills in treated animals on day 21 (da Luz Eltchechem et al., 2017)
  • This study concludes, “By alleviating a broad spectrum of Aβ-induced pathology that includes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, and tau pathology in rats, LLI could represent a new promising therapeutic strategy for AD (Lu et al., 2017)
  • 670-nm light exposure reduces age-related retinal inflammation (Kokkinopoulos et al., 2013)
  • PBM has been shown to be a novel long-lasting therapeutic option for age-related macular degeneration. It was shown to increase ATP and reduce inflammation (Calaza et al., 2015)
  • We’ll let the title of this one speak for itself, “Aging retinal function is improved by near infrared light that is associated with corrected mitochondrial decline.” (Sivapathasuntharam et al., 2017)
  • A dissertation from the University of Wisconsin concluded that by exploiting, the cells own mechanism of self-repair, PBM has the potential for translating into clinical practice as an innovative, non-invasive stand-alone or adjunct therapy for the prevention and treatment of retinal diseases. (Gopalakrishnan, 2012)
  • This study provides proof of principle for the non-invasive use of red-light therapy to attenuate any dysfunctions associated with the corneal endothelium and so preserve maximum visual acuity. (Núñez-Álvarez et al., 2017)
  • Red-light therapy enhances retinal ganglion cell mitochondrial function and has the advantage of being both non-toxic and non-invasive (Beirne et al., 2016; Osborne et al., 2016; So et al., 2014; Szymanski et al., 2013)
  • Near infrared light has been shown to restore normal vision following a traumatic injury (Fitzgerald et al., 2010)
  • Low-level laser has been shown to reduce healing time of the cornea when compared to not intervention (M.d et al., 2011)
  • One of the first human trials to be completed and published, in 2014, assessed 50 patients with closed bone fractures in their wrist or hand. Some of these patients received red light therapy treatments at the site of their injuries, while others received a placebo treatment. The red light therapy group “exhibited significant changes in all of the parameters,” while the placebo group did not. Improvements in the red light therapy group included:
    • Reduced pain and discomfort from wrist and hand injuries
    • Enhanced hand and wrist function
    • Improved grip strength
    • X-ray imaging demonstrated noticeable improvements (Chang et al., 2014)
  • A placebo-controlled trial published in 2017 analyzed red light therapy’s effectiveness for healing facial fractures and edema in 40 patients. Compared to the placebo group, the people whose faces were treated with red light therapy saw nearly double the reduction in swelling (Baek et al., 2017)
  • Concentrated natural light stimulates the mitochondria in your cells, reducing oxidative stress, and helping your body produce more usable energy to power itself, regenerate, and heal. Laboratory research has demonstrated better microvascular circulation in models treated with near infrared light (Brassolatti et al., 2018; Pinheiro & Gerbi, 2006)
  • Several studies have also clearly shown that models treated with natural light produce significantly more osteoblasts (bone forming cells) and osteocytes (advance osteoblasts that have become embedded in their own bone matrix) (Heo et al., 2018; Pinheiro & Gerbi, 2006; Tschon et al., 2015)
  • Multiple studies show that PBM treatments increase natural (endogenous) collagen production (Brassolatti et al., 2018; Heo et al., 2018; Pinheiro & Gerbi, 2006; Tschon et al., 2015)
  • In 2012, researchers published a meta-analysis of 13 in vitro studies and 12 animal studies concerning red light therapy and bone health. They found that 11 of 13 in vitro studies showed a significant increase in cell proliferation with light treatments. They also found that all 12 animal studies showed improved bone healing in sites treated with light therapy. The team concluded that red light therapy can “accelerate bone healing in extraction sites, bone fracture defects, and distraction osteogenesis.” (Ebrahimi et al., 2012)
  • A separate team, analyzing red light therapy and bone healing in animal studies, found that treatments can “enhance biomechanical properties of bone during fracture healing in animal models.” Researchers also noted that maximum bone tolerance, a measure of overall strength, was increased with red light therapy across several studies (Bashardoust Tajali et al., 2010)
  • In 2015, researchers analyzed red light therapy’s effectiveness at healing tibia fractures in a lab rodent model. Using radiologic and histopathologic analysis, they found that rats treated with red light therapy experienced much faster rates of tibia fracture healing (Briteño-Vázquez et al., 2015)
  • Another study performed on rats found that the healed tibias treated with red light showed greater stiffness and maximum endurance before breakage (Luger et al., 1998)
  • A 2017 study analyzed age-related rat osteoporosis treated with red light. Researchers found the treatments can “effectively improve osteoporosis, increase bone mineral density, improve bone structure, and improve bone biomechanical properties in old rats (Zhu et al., 2017)
  • A separate 2016 study showed red light therapy can preserve vertebrae strength against detrimental effects of osteoporosis in rats, and increase the stress load of bones with osteoporosis (Bayat et al., 2016)
  • After examining ninety rats that received bone grafts, researchers in a 2018 study concluded that the animals treated with red light therapy saw improved graft potential, and even improved bone formation in ungrafted areas (de Oliveira et al., 2018)
  • A few different research articles show that light therapy can increase sperm motility (Ban Frangez et al., 2015; Preece et al., 2017; Salman Yazdi et al., 2014)
  • Light therapy exposure on rats stimulates sperm production (Biswas et al., 2013)
  • Laser therapy of patients with prostatitis and vesiculitis can improve reproductive and copulatory functions (Vladimirovich Moskvin & Ivanovich Apolikhin, 2018)
  • In patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, low-level laser therapy has been effective at improving thyroid function, promoting reduced TPOAb-mediated autoimmunity and increasing thyroid echogenicity (Höfling et al., 2013)
  • In a study that looked at irradiated thyroid glands in rats, it was found that PBM can improve thyroid function, as well as liver function and antioxidant levels (Morcos et al., 2015)
  • The results of an article from 2018 showed that the application of laser and levothyroxine synchronously improves the biomechanical parameters of wound during healing in comparison to the use of laser and levothyroxine solely (Firouzi et al., 2018)
  • The application of low-level laser therapy may contribute to increased recruitment of muscle fibers and, hence, to increase the onset time of the spastic muscle fatigue, reducing pain intensity in stroke patients with spasticity, as has been observed in healthy subjects and athletes (das Neves et al., 2016; dos Reis et al., 2015)
  • “PBM is a promising medical treatment for the attenuation of CVA-related spasticity of the triceps surae muscle spasticity, and facilitate voluntary movements in such patients” (Ushigome et al., 2008)
  • A literature review of 68 in vitro and animal-study articles from 1992 to 2012 reported that PBM has significant effects on wound healing. It decreases the number of inflammatory cells, increases fibroblast proliferation, stimulates angiogenesis, forms granulation tissue and increases synthesis of collagen (Chaves et al., 2014)
  • It was determined in a systematic review that PBM promoted bone reformation, an increase in collagen synthesis, and a contribution to microvascular reestablishment.(Brassolatti et al., 2018)
  • A series of papers found that infrared wavelengths increase osteoblastic proliferation, collagen deposition, and bone neoformation when compared to nonirradiated bone (Heo et al., 2018; Pinheiro & Gerbi, 2006)
  • PBM promotes wound healing mainly through stimulation of cell migration and collagen deposition by osteoblasts, as demonstrated by an in vitro model (Tschon et al., 2015)
  • The ability of PBM to influence the microbiome (if proven to be applicable to humans) will allow an additional therapeutic route to target multiple diseases, including cardiovascular disease and Parkinson’s disease, many of which have thus far eluded effective treatment approaches (Liebert et al., 2019)
  • Photobiomodulation and Antiviral Photodynamic Therapy as a Possible Novel Approach in COVID-19 Management (Fekrazad, 2020)
  • Photobiomodulation may be considered a promising tool for the treatment of chronic pulmonary allergic inflammationobserved in asthma (Rigonato-Oliveira et al., 2019)
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